清洁高效技术 把煤炭变成洁净能源

中国能源报 General,  Viewpoint,  Environmental Protection 2018-06-08 08:47:00

“以煤为主是符合我国资源禀赋条件、不可变化的事实,其他替代能源只能是辅助能源,而不能成为主力。”日前接受本报记者采访时,中国工程院院士、清华大学教授倪维斗再次呼吁,重视煤炭清洁高效利用。依托先进的节能环保技术,让煤炭燃烧更清洁,更加环境友好。


外表一团黑,燃烧一团灰——传统观念中,煤炭与清洁很难划上等号。然而,随着清洁利用技术越来越普及,煤炭高排放、高污染形象正在得到扭转,甚至一些领域,燃煤排放指标可比肩天然气。近日,来自科研院所、煤炭行业、环保企业的业内人士,从不同角度向记者展示了部分新技术。


“燃煤机组超低排放关键技术研发及应用”项目


——获国家技术发明一等奖


“我国煤炭资源虽分布较广,但总体质量并不高,其复杂多样性是清洁利用过程中必须解决的问题。此前引入国外清洁利用技术,一个软件包就要花上百万美元,买回来还可能出现‘水土不服’的情况,适应性较差。”项目牵头人、浙江大学能源工程学院院长高翔感慨。


记者了解到,在不少发电企业,高灰份煤、高硫煤等劣质煤使用量大,导致燃烧特性及污染物排放非常复杂,相关环保装置须符合中国“煤情”要求。另一方面,我国燃煤电厂经常面临负荷变化频繁的运行环境,对清洁利用装置的运行适应性和可靠性相应提出更高要求。从成本角度来说,煤炭清洁利用技术和装备既需高效又要低廉。


对此,“燃煤机组超低排放关键技术研发及应用”项目以超低排放新工艺为基础,形成了一套多污染物高效协同脱除集成系统。同时,还研发出多功能的脱硝系列技术,及细颗粒物高效脱除技术,分别解决燃煤机组脱硫效率低、颗粒物排放高等难题。


“只需短短几十秒,烟气就可‘跑完’整套系统,二氧化硫、氮氧化物、颗粒物等污染物随之滤掉。与国家标准相比,三者排放分别低于标准83%、5%、67%,甚至优于天然气发电排放的限值要求。”高翔介绍。更重要的是,该系统不会增加机组负担,设备投资和运维成本匀摊后,每度电成本仅增加1分钱左右。


目前,该项目已在全国10余省市、不同等级的燃煤机组及中小热电机组中规模化应用,累计装机容量超过1亿千瓦。


“煤炭浆体化+悬浮流化床”技术


——为城镇集中供热提供新模式


在 国家能源局印发的《煤炭清洁高效利用行动计划(2015-2020)》中,“水煤浆技术”先后4次被点名提及,其推广应用也在近年渐成趋势。据不完全统计,我国煤炭浆体化用量已突破3000万吨/年,目前多用于煤化工、工业锅炉等领域。


而在清华大学与青岛特利尔环保股份有限公司(下称“特利尔”)的合作下,煤炭浆体化技术另辟蹊径,通过与悬浮流化床锅炉相结合,为城镇集中供暖提供了新路径。“水煤浆锅炉的燃料不是煤炭,而是水煤浆,由65%的煤、34%的水和1%的添加剂构成。燃料混合后进入悬浮流化床,几乎可达100%燃烧,既省去前端的煤场、输送带建设,后端也不会产生煤渣,免去除渣等工序。”特利尔董事长李瑞国告诉记者。


该技术的最大特色是无需额外加装净化装置,通过自身低温燃烧过程,炉内便可完成脱硫脱硝环节,有效抑制氮氧化物生成。统计显示,该装置炉内脱硫效率可达98%,煤含硫量在0.6%以下,二氧化硫原始排放控制在35毫克/标准立方米以内,远低于现行燃煤锅炉排放标准。


“通过不断改进,锅炉目前所需煤种不再局限于应用之初的精选煤,普通烟煤、褐煤均可使用,大大降低使用门槛,同时却不会加重排放。”李瑞国以较早推行的济南市领秀城小区为例介绍,相比传统锅炉,新型水煤浆锅炉在同等供暖条件下,每个采暖季可节约标煤7530吨,减排二氧化碳2万多吨、二氧化硫600多吨。节能率达20%的同时,环保运行成本降低70%左右。


节能环保型煤泥循环流化床


——从源头减排的低成本路线


同样致力于清洁利用技术探索的,还有煤企自身。即便是有21年历史的“老资格”东滩矿电厂也不例外。


“国内首台100%燃用煤泥75吨/小时循环流化床锅炉就在我们这儿投运,当时技术可谓国际领先。”兖矿集团东滩矿电厂厂长张明华坦言,随着时间推移、设备老化及相关标准提高,锅炉各项性能、环保指标均难以满足现行要求。为此,一场“蓝天工程”拉开帷幕,首先是对电厂3号锅炉的改造。


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