煤炭清洁利用是减排治污优先选项

经济参考报 General,  Viewpoint,  Environmental Protection 2018-06-01 08:33:00

我国目前仍处在工业化加速推进阶段,煤炭消费占我国一次能源消费的2/3,是重要的一次能源。“富煤少油缺气”的资源禀赋特征等现实因素,决定了未来相当长一段时间内煤炭利用仍将占能源消费主导地位。


在为我国经济社会持续平稳发展提供能源保障的同时,煤炭带来的资源、环境、生态和安全问题也越来越突出。近年来,每年秋冬季节出现的“供暖式雾霾”,让煤炭背上了“雾霾元凶”的骂名。为了解决这个问题,有人提出了“去煤化”的口号。从人类获取能源方式的长远发展来看,“去煤化”是个正在发生的过程,但是,我们应该清醒地认识到,“去煤化”在短期内并不会影响煤炭在我国能源消费中的“老大”地位。


2017年以来,一场遍及华北地区的大规模“煤改气”行动,因为天然气的短缺而遭遇瓶颈。以现有的天然气进口、运输和处理能力及其体制,难以满足我国对天然气需求的严峻现实。这就造成了部分地区天然气供需出现结构性、时段性、区域性矛盾,影响到部分群众冬季采暖和部分企业的工业生产。


实践证明,实施煤炭减量化和清洁化利用并举战略,在满足安全排放标准的前提下,高效、清洁地利用煤炭,是最具环境和成本效益的煤炭利用战略。


日本煤炭消费从20世纪70年代石油危机以来持续增长,特别是福岛核事故后,为了弥补弃核所带来的能源短缺,煤炭消费开始进入新一轮快速增长。解决煤炭资源利用与实现减排目标的矛盾成为日本经济发展面临的重大课题。为此,日本将煤炭利用的环保政策纳入总体环保政策体系进行管理,在制定污染物排放控制标准时,依据最佳可行技术实施动态控制。


根据1999年出台的《21世纪煤炭技术战略》,日本将在2030年实现煤炭资源循环利用,实现煤炭利用零排放, 并制定了分三个阶段的技术研发和推广战略。在日本,将煤炭作为清洁能源使用的主要技术障碍已不存在。日本经验说明,国家加大对煤炭清洁高效利用技术的研发投入推广,是推动洁净煤技术发展的重要动力。


结合世界清洁煤发展趋势和我国国情,我们应该重点研发和推广高效洁净燃煤发电、高效清洁燃煤工业锅炉、洁净工业燃料气制备技术,适度发展新型煤化工技术。在国家能源局制定的《能源生产和消费革命战略(2016-2030)》和《能源发展“十三五”规划》中,就包含了近零碳排放示范行动、煤炭清洁利用行动等内容。


得益于煤化工和烟道气净化等先进技术,最新的火电厂已有能力解决煤炭清洁利用、污染物超低排放问题。在山东省内,一项新型的煤炭清洁高效利用技术正在被广泛应用,尤其是在城镇集中供热和工业园区热电联产这两个领域,水煤浆技术取得了突飞猛进的发展。


目前,我国已经拥有世界上最严格的燃煤发电污染物排放标准。未来可通过制定更为严格和完善的环保、节能法规及标准,促进煤炭清洁高效利用技术推广。我们必须严格执行煤炭污染物排放的控制目标和标准,应通过碳排放交易机制等手段控制煤炭消费的总量,实现煤炭生产减量化;同时要尽快制定国家煤炭清洁利用和高效发电发展战略和技术创新路线图,切实加强示范项目建设和洁净煤技术的推广,从而实现煤炭的清洁高效利用。


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