加快推进安全智能精准开采技术 提高煤炭精准开采水平

科技日报 General 2018-05-31 09:34:00

“我国煤炭资源禀赋复杂、每层差异大、条件差,薄和极薄煤层、厚与特厚煤层、大斜角与急斜煤层广泛分布,开采难度大。”近日,在中国工程院重点咨询项目“我国煤炭资源高效回收及节能战略研究”成果发布会上,针对我国煤炭资源高效回收和节能面临的问题,10多位院士和业界专家共聚一堂进行探讨。


我国煤炭资源回收率低


煤炭是我国最大的能源支撑,据中国工程院《能源发展战略2030—2050》报告中预测2050年煤炭占一次能源比重控制在50%以下,但仍需25—30亿吨,煤炭将长期是我国主导能源。


“但我国煤炭开采中普遍存在“弃薄采厚、挑肥拣瘦”现象,造成原设计80—100年服务年限缩短一半”。项目负责人、工程院院士、安徽理工大学副校长袁亮介绍,低煤炭资源回收率大大缩短矿井服务年限,尤其是矿井资源回收率平均仅50%左右,与美、澳等发达国家约80%的回收率仍然有较大差距。


此外,大规模产能过剩,严重危害煤炭行业当前效益。袁亮院士认为,我国煤炭开采节能水平与发达国家差距较大主要表现在:生产吨煤能耗大、洗选技术落后、煤炭综合利用率低三大方面。其中,我国原煤入洗量世界第一,原煤入洗率不足60%,为电厂等提供燃料的动力煤入洗率不足30%,而普遍采用的堆煤混配配煤技术,精确度低、稳定性差。


因此,积极寻求更高效的、环境友好的煤炭绿色开发途径,提高煤炭资源安全、经济、技术和环境一体化回收率,最大限度地提高煤炭的能源效率,是社会、经济、能源、环境可持续协调发展重大战略需要。


加速淘汰落后产能和落后装备


据了解,目前我国已探明煤炭资源中,埋深在1000m以下资源量占53%,随着浅部资源枯竭,深部开采威胁越来越严重。


在我国去产能政策实施背景下,如何避免资源浪费、提供一条转型脱困和可持续发展道路?袁亮院士认为,需要持续加大去产能力度,实现供需平衡,提升高效回收水平。


“全国产能普遍过剩,但去产能的重点在东北、华东和华南区”。袁亮院士介绍,我国现有绿色煤炭资源主要分布晋陕蒙宁甘区占全国73.23%、东北区占0.91%、华东区占8.29%、华南区占5.01%、新青区占12.55%。对此,晋陕蒙宁甘区,重点是缓建、停建一批在建矿煤;东北区和华东区以关闭退出煤矿为主,重点淘汰落后产能、扭亏无望煤矿;川渝湘鄂,以关闭退出为主;新青区,以满足本省需求为主确定生产规模,缓建、停建一批在建煤矿,关闭和技改一批煤矿。


“加快淘汰落后产能和落后装备,不断完善先进技术、先进装备的推广目录,进一步建立健全淘汰落后产能的长效机制。”袁亮院士认为,加快企业的兼并重组,调整高能耗产业布局,控制能耗总量增长,以节能优先培育行业龙头企业,完善节能减排财税政策,构建资源环境全成本价格机制。


加快推广安全智能精准开采技术


针对我国煤炭资源高效回收与节能面临的问题与挑战。袁亮院士在接受采访时表示,加快推进煤炭安全智能精准开采科学体系研究,将相关研究方向列入未来的国家科技重大专项、国家重点研发计划、国家自然科学基金重大研究计划等项目指南,从政策方面加强对其基础研究、关键技术与装备研发的扶持力度。


积极推广神东、淮南、黄陵等矿区的先进经验,优选一批绿色煤炭资源赋存条件好、开采技术与装备先进、资源回收与节能水平高的矿区,建设国家级煤炭精准开采工程示范基地,充分发挥示范引领作用,带动其他矿区的资源高效回收能力,切实提高我国煤炭精准开采水平。


此外,袁亮院士还介绍,应该建立能源开发国家实验室,将煤炭资源高效回收、多种矿产资源协调开发等列为重要单元。建立绿色煤炭资源精准开采国家重点实验室,建立绿色煤炭资源精准开采协同创新联盟等措施,有效保证绿色煤炭资源量开发比例,顺利达成预期战略目标。


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